This software was designed by professor Austen Clark, at the University of Connecticut. The first program, Twootie, is particularly relevant to Meaning and Argument as it deals with truth trees. The second program, Bertie3, focuses on natural deduction. For background information on the software, visit the Twootie and Bertie3 Home page.

Students working with Meaning and Argument are encouraged to use Twootie, in addition to practicing truth trees by hand. The program offers helpful hints, and is a great way to become more familiar with truth trees. Bertie3 offers support for the student who wants to learn more about natural deduction.


Copyright Austen Clark, 1991, 1992.

The truth tree system in Twootie uses slightly different conventions than those in Meaning and Argument. For a basic start-up guide, read Using the Program; for help with converting between Meaning and Argument and Twootie, check out Twootie Conversions. Before downloading, please read the License Agreement. Enjoy!

Getting Started


Bertie 3

Copyright Austen Clark, 1992

Bertie3 is a great way to learn more about natural deduction.To get started, read Using the Program.

Getting Started


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