Welcome to the Center for Cognitive Science


  • Leslie, A.M., Gelman, R., & Gallistel, C.R. (in press). The generative basis of natural number concepts. Trends in Cognitive SciencesThis email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. 


  • Leslie, A.M., Gallistel, C.R., & Gelman, R. (2007). Where integers come from. In P. Carruthers, S. Laurence, & S. Stich, (Eds.), The Innate Mind: Foundations and Future. (pp. 109–138). Oxford: Oxford University Press. This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.  
  • Friedman, O., & Leslie, A.M. (2007). The conceptual underpinnings of pretense: Pretending is not 'behaving-as-if'. Cognition, 105, 103–124. PDF (291) Abstract 
  • Leslie, A.M., & Chen, M.L. (2007). Individuation of pairs of objects in infancy. Developmental Science, 10, 423–430. PDF (214KB) click for Abstract
  • Leslie, A.M., & Káldy, Z. (2007). Things to remember: Limits, codes, and the development of object working memory in the first year. In L.M. Oakes & P.J. Bauer (Eds.), Short- and long-term memory in infancy and early childhood: Taking the first steps toward remembering. (pp. 103–125). Oxford: Oxford University Press. This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. 
  • Biro, S., & Leslie, A.M. (2007). Infants' perception of goal-directed action: Development through cue-based bootstrapping. Developmental Science, 10, 379–398. PDF (786) click for abstract
  • Onishi, K.H., Baillargeon, R., & Leslie, A.M. (2007). 15-month-old infants detect violations in pretend sequences. Acta Psychologica124, 106–128. PDF (958KB) click for Abstract
  • Leslie, A.M., Mallon, R., & DiCorcia, J.A. (2006). Transgressors, victims, and cry babies: Is basic moral judgment spared in autism? Social Neuroscience1, 270–283. PDF (210KB) click for Abstract
  • Káldy, Z., Blaser, E., & Leslie, A.M. (2006). A new method for calibrating perceptual salience in infants: The case of color vs luminance. Developmental Science, 9482–489. PDF (277KB) click for abstract
  • Leslie, A.M., Knobe, J., & Cohen, A. (2006). Acting intentionally and the side-effect effect: 'Theory of mind' and moral judgment. Psychological Science, 17, 421–427. PDF (179KB) click for abstract
  • Bosco, F., Friedman, O., & Leslie, A.M. (2006). Recognition of pretend and real actions in play by one- and two-year-olds: Early success and why they fail. Cognitive Development21, 3–10. PDF (169KB) 
  • Leslie, A.M. (2005). Developmental parallels in understanding minds and bodies. Research Focus.Trends in Cognitive Sciences9, 459–462. PDF (207KB)click for Abstract
  • Káldy, Z., & Leslie, A.M. (2005). A memory span of one? Object identification in 6.5-month-old infants. Cognition, 97, 153–177. PDF (415KB) click for abstract
  • Friedman, O., & Leslie, A.M. (2005). Processing demands in belief-desire reasoning: Inhibition or general difficulty? Developmental Science, 8, 218–225. PDF (117KB) click for abstract
  • Leslie, A.M., German, T.P., & Polizzi, P. (2005). Belief-desire reasoning as a process of selection.Cognitive Psychology, 50, 45–85. PDF (785KB) view abstract
  • Leslie, A.M., Friedman, O., & German, T.P. (2004). Core mechanisms in 'theory of mind'. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 8528–533. PDF (177KB) click for abstract
  • Friedman, O., & Leslie, A.M. (2004a). A developmental shift in processes underlying successful belief-desire reasoning. Cognitive Science, 28, 963–977. PDF (200KB) click for abstract
  • Friedman, O., & Leslie, A.M. (2004b). Mechanisms of belief-desire reasoning: Inhibition and selection. Psychological Science, 15, 547–552. PDF (153KB) view abstract

  • Baron-Cohen, S., Leslie, A.M., & Frith, U. (1985). Does the autistic child have a "theory of mind"?Cognition21, 37–46. PDF (243KB) 
  • Frith, U., Morton, J., & Leslie, A.M. (1991). The cognitive basis of a biological disorder: Autism.Trends in Neurosciences14, 433–438. PDF (495KB) 
  • German, T.P., & Leslie, A.M. (2001). Children's inferences from knowing to pretending andbelievingBritish Journal of Developmental Psychology19, 59–83. PDF (378KB)
  • Káldy, Z., & Leslie, A.M. (2003). Identification of objects in 9-month-old infants: integrating 'what' and 'where' information. Developmental Science, 6, 360–373. PDF (494KB) view abstract
  • Leslie, A.M. (1984a). Infant perception of agency when a hand picks up an object. British Journal of Developmental Psychology2, 19–32. PDF (1990KB) view abstract [I've changed the original title slightly to make it comprehensible.]
  • Leslie, A.M. (1984b). Spatiotemporal continuity and the perception of causality in infants.Perception13, 287–305. PDF (658KB) view abstract
  • Leslie, A.M. (1986). Getting development off the ground. In P. van Geert (Ed.), Theory building in developmental psychology, (pp. 405–437). Elsevier Science Publications. PDF(338KB) [Was this the first discussion of the role of modularity in development?] 
  • Leslie, A.M. (1987). Pretense and representation: The origins of "theory of mind". Psychological Review94, 412–426. PDF (506KB) 
  • Leslie, A.M. (1988). The necessity of illusion: Perception and thought in infancy. In L. Weiskrantz (Ed.), Thought without language, (pp. 185–210). Oxford: Clarendon Press/Oxford University Press.(PDF 460KB)
  • Leslie, A.M. (1992). Pretense, autism, and the "theory-of-mind" module. Current Directions in Psychological Science1, 18–21. (Reprinted in R.P. Honeck (Ed.), Introductory Readings for Cognitive Psychology, 3rd edition, Guilford, CT: Dushkin/McGraw-Hill, 1997. ) PDF (395KB) 
  • Leslie, A.M. (1994a). Pretending and believing: Issues in the theory of ToMMCognition50, 211–238. (PDF 2047KB)
  • Leslie, A.M. (1994b). ToMMToBy, and Agency: Core architecture and domain specificity. In L. Hirschfeld and S. Gelman (Eds.), Mapping the mind: Domain specificity in cognition and culture, (pp. 119–148). New York: Cambridge University Press. (PDF 365KB)
  • Leslie, A.M. (2000a). How to acquire a ‘representational theory of mind’. In D. Sperber (Ed.),Metarepresentations: An Multidisciplinary perspective. (pp. 197–223). Oxford: Oxford University Press. PDF (131KB)
  • Leslie, A.M. (2000b). ‘Theory of mind’ as a mechanism of selective attention. In M. Gazzaniga (Ed.),The New Cognitive Neurosciences, 2nd Edition. (pp. 1235–1247). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. PDF (761KB)
  • Leslie, A.M. (2002). Pretense and representation revisited. In N.L. Stein, P.J. Bauer, and M. Rabinowitz (Eds.), Representation, memory and development. Essays in honor of Jean Mandler. (pp. 103–114). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. PDF (251KB)
  • Leslie, A.M., & Frith, U. (1988). Autistic children's understanding of seeing, knowing and believing.British Journal of Developmental Psychology6, 315–324. PDF (407KB) 
  • Leslie, A.M., & Frith, U. (1990). Prospects for a cognitive neuropsychology of autism: Hobson's choice. Psychological Review97, 122–131. PDF (1210KB)
  • Leslie, A.M., & Káldy, Z. (2001). Indexing individual objects in infant working memory. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology78, 61–74. PDF (54KB)
  • Leslie, A.M., & Keeble, S. (1987). Do six-month-old infants perceive causality? Cognition25, 265–288. PDF (166KB)
  • Leslie, A.M., & Thaiss, L. (1992). Domain specificity in conceptual development: Neuropsychological evidence from autism. Cognition43, 225–251. PDF (352KB)
  • Leslie, A.M., & Polizzi, P. (1998). Inhibitory processing in the false belief task: Two conjectures.Developmental Science1, 247–253. PDF (430KB)
  • Leslie, A.M., Xu, F., Tremoulet, P., & Scholl, B. (1998). Indexing and the object concept: Developing ‘what’ and ‘where’ systems. Trends in Cognitive Sciences2, 10–18. PDF (608KB)
  • Perner, J., Frith, U., Leslie, A.M., & Leekam, S. (1989). Exploring the autistic child's theory of mind: Knowledge, belief, and communication. Child Development60, 689–700. PDF (495KB)
  • Roth, D., & Leslie, A.M. (1991). The recognition of attitude conveyed by utterance: A study of preschool and autistic children. British Journal of Developmental Psychology9, 315–330. PDF (630KB)
  • Roth, D., & Leslie, A.M. (1998). Solving belief problems: Toward a task analysis. Cognition66, 1–31. PDF (626KB)
  • Surian, L., &  Leslie, A.M. (1999). Competence and performance in false belief understanding: A comparison of autistic and three-year-old children. British Journal of Developmental Psychology17, 141–155. PDF (167KB)
  • Scholl, B.J., & Leslie, A.M. (2001). Minds, modules, and meta-analysis. Child Development72, 696–701. PDF (96KB)
  • Scholl, B.J., &  Leslie, A.M. (1999a). Explaining the infant’s object concept: Beyond the perception/cognition dichotomy. In (Eds.), E. Lepore &  Z. Pylyshyn, What is Cognitive Science?(pp. 26–73). Oxford: Blackwell. PDF (152KB)
  • Scholl, B.J., &  Leslie, A.M. (1999b). Modularity, development, and ‘theory of mind’. Mind & Language14, 131–153. PDF (204KB)
  • Scott, F., Baron-Cohen, S., & Leslie, A.M. (1999). 'If pigs could fly': An investigation of counterfactual reasoning and imagination in children with autism. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 17, 349–362. PDF (152KB)
  • Tremoulet, P., Leslie, A.M., & Hall, G. (2000). Infant attention to the shape and color of objects: Individuation and identification. Cognitive Development15, 499–522. PDF (596KB)

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