Chapter 4

p. 57: Ex. 3, no. 16: This statement is notambiguous.


Chapter 4 Solutions

p. 362: Ex.1, no. 7: Change "he did see" to "he saw".

p. 362: Ex. 3, no. 7: change from "double negation ~~E" to "single negation ~E", and change the dictionary to "E: Someone had nothing to eat". (Treating the statement as a double negation would mean treating "noone had nothing to eat" and equivalent to "someone had something to eat", but the two sentences do not have the same meaning.)

p. 363: Ex. 3, no.16: This is a simple statement as "I think John will arrive until Tuesday" is ungrammatical, i.e. we cannot remove the negation.

p. 363: Ex. 3, no. 20: This is a negation, i.e. the negation of "Until Bill leaves, Frank can pay", which, unlike in no. 16, is a perfectlt acceptable sentence.

p. 363: Ex. 3, no.24: change the answer from 'simple statement' to 'negation'. (The sentence 'it was unknown to me' has the same meaning as 'it was not known to me', thus we treat it as a negation.)


Chapter 6

p. 79: paragraph before 6.5: in the last sentence, change "We can assume that for (36), ..." to "We can assume that for (38), ..."


Chapter 8

p. 125: Ex. 1: remove "exercise 5 in chapter 6" from the directions.


Chapter 8 Solutions

p. 374: Ex. 1, bottom tree: add a line 13 below both the open sentences in step 12. It should read:

   /      \       /     \
~D    ~T   ~D    ~T         6, ~&

p. 377: Ex.4, no.2: Lines 7-9 are incorrect; they should read:

   /           \ 
7.  ~D     (B & C)       1, 

8.              B            8 and 9 from 7, &
9.              C

Then the explanation will to change to:

"All branches open, so (1) does not deductively imply unnegated (2)."


Chapter 9 Solutions

pp. 381-2: Ex. 3: Add the following solutions:

29) (G1)
30) (N1  (O1 v E1))
31) (N1  O1) & (N1  E1)
32) (M1  P1) & (M1  L1)

35) L1 (R1)
36) (P1  L1) v L1j
37) (P1 & S1) & (P1 & D1) & (P1 & ~(S1 v D1))


Chapter 10

p. 165: first sentence of 10.3: we only use two quantifiers -- UQ and EQ -- we don't use QE in the tree.

p. 165: in line 11 of the truth tree, "E1a" should have a tilde in front of it.


Chapter 10 Solutions

p. 384: Ex 3, no. 4: Line 5 justification should be "QE" not "EQ".

p. 384: Ex 3, no. 4: lines 9-10 should be moved to the left so that they are under the right open branches in step 8.


Chapter 11

p. 185: Ex. 2, no.5: add 'P1: is a person' to the dictionary

p.186: Ex 2, no. 9: change the dictionary letters to ones that make more sense. (Note the current dictionary is not incorrect, it's just harder to read.) Change to: "C1: is a child; I1: is innocent; U1: is an urchin; O1: is obedient). See below for the modified solution.

p. 187: Ex. 2, no. 19: add a dictionary: L1: is a liberal; P1:is a philosopher; H1:is a humanitarian.


Chapter 11 Solutions

p. 388: Ex 2, no. 9: After updating the dictionary in the problem (see above), change the solution to the following:
~(C1 & I1), (~O1  U1) (or ((C1 & ~O1 U 1) ), 
(( I1 & C1 (O1 & C1)), (C1  U1)


Chapter 13

p. 216: Ex. 1: Change the dictionary for " is a pineapple" from "P1" to "N1" as "P1" already appears in the dictionary. Change this in the solutions also (see below).

p.227: paragraph beginning "The first complication...", 6th line, change " . . . 'L2 __,__' abbreviating '__loves' . . .". to " ... '__ loves ___'" to show it is clearly a two place predicate.


Chapter 13 Solutions

p.389: Ex. 1, no.6: Change 'P1' to 'N1' after changing the dictionary (see above).

p. 390: Ex. 4, no. 3: In the last sentence, change "and the second has wider scope than the third" to "and the third has wider scope than the second".


Chapter 15 Solutions

p. 397, Ex 8, no. 3: in line two, ‘T1y’ should be a ‘P1y’, and there should be another left parenthesis "(" before "T1z."

p. 397, Ex 8, no. 3: in line 3, there should be another left parenthesis "(" before "T1y."

p. 399, Ex 11, no.3: first line: change to '~x (F1x & y ((S1y & H2xy) & A2xy))


Chapter 16

p. 269: Last line on the page: replace "insure" with "ensure.

p.273: In the title of the the gray box, there should be a space between "n" and "procedure".

p. 278: First line below (71): remove "which by EQ conedes the existence ... in order to be meaningful".


Chapter 16 Solutions

p. 403: Ex 3, no. 5 : delete '~' in '~Q1b' in last line of tree -- the tree is now open and the argument invalid.

p. 404: Ex 8, no. 3: third premise -- change 'x' to 'y' in 'E1x'

p. 405: Ex 10, no. 3: delete the check mark before the question number.


Chapter 17 Solutions

p. 405: Ex 2, no. 1: replace all occurences of 'e' with 'z' in both first and second premises



p. 412: entry under 'only', sub-sentry under: 'the only': pagination should be 405, not 404