Slide the symbols to create sentences in PL, PPL, RPL! The links below let you arrange the propositions or predicates along with connectives, quantifiers and variables to make symbolizations for the given sentences. The 'submit' button then lets you check your answer, and pinpoint any mistakes you may have made.

To begin, select any of the sentences below, then choose the proposition or quantifier that should appear first in the symbolization. Place this directly above the asterisk on the page, then drag the next symbol until it appears next to the first. Continue until the sentence is complete, then press the 'submit' button to test the result.

NB: The results are tested very strictly, and logically equivalent symbolizations are not accepted. Please use the strategies presented in Meaning and Argument, and follow the structure of the given sentence as closely as possible.


Propositional Logic (PL)

Mike and Susan left.

Either Karen or Lucy will sing.

John cannot paint my house again.

If Nadia is good, she can have ice cream.

Bill gets paid only if he finishes cutting the grass.

Neither Plato nor Socrates could drive a car.

It's false that both LaMark and Darwin were wrong.

It's not the case that I carry my umbrella only if it rains.


Property Predicate Logic (PPL)

Something is beautiful

Everything is great

All frogs are green

Someone is talking loudly


Relational Predicate Logic (RPL)

Some people are irritable.